Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District (GBMSD)
Green Bay, Wisconsin
The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District (GBMSD) is a public utility, established in 1931,
that reclaims 38 million gallons of wastewater per day at two treatment facilities in Green Bay
and De Pere, WI. Its service area covers 285 square miles and serves more than 219,000 people.
GBMSD’s mission is to promote public health and welfare through the collection, treatment, and
reclamation of wastewater, while assessing stable, competitive rates. In conjunction with others,
the organization will encourage pollution prevention and support programs to help ensure that
water contaminated by human activity is returned clean to the environment. GBMSD conducts
its business using a sustainable approach within the social, environmental, and economical
values of our customers and stakeholders.
GBMSD initiated the development of a Solids Management Plan in 2008 to address aging solids
handling facilities and the solids loadings from recently acquired De Pere Facility. The existing
solids processing system consists of belt press dewatering followed by multiple hearth
incineration. The solids system is located at the Green Bay Facility. Solids from the De Pere
Facility are transferred by pipeline to the Green Bay Facility for processing. The solids system
was constructed in the 1970s and is reaching the end of its useful life. The multiple hearth
incineration process is now considered an outdated technology. Current incineration technology
uses fluidized beds, which consume less fuel and lower air emissions.
The solids management planning effort was undertaken to develop a long-term plan for handling,
processing, and disposing of solids. The plan included a comprehensive evaluation of numerous
solids management technologies and approaches. This paper describes the process used to
develop the plan, the alternatives that were considered, the alternatives evaluation process, and
the preferred solids management alternative.
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: 100K-500K, Sanitary Sewer, Stormwater, Waste Water Treatment | Tags: Environmental Impact, Minimized Life-Cycle Cost, Plant Sustainability, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water)
The DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water) is implementing new sludge and biosolids
processing facilites at the 1.4 million cubic meters/day (370 million gallons per day [mgd]) Blue
Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (AWTP) in Washington D.C. The program
involves thermal hydrolysis (TH) followed by anaerobic digsetion and includes a major
cogeneration facility to provide electric power for the treatment plant and steam for the TH
Decision and development criteria for DC Water’s biosolids program have evolved over recent
years and now include a broad range of factors with strong emphasis on sustainability criteria. A
major link between high-performance digestion and renewable energy production has been
forged. Key criteria for decision-making now include renewable power and energy production,
climate change issues, biosolids product quality, digestion performance, and site efficiency, as
well as capital constraints and economics.
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: 100K-500K, Waste Water Treatment | Tags: Biosolids Minimization, Economic Benefits, Energy Management, Improved Digestion Performance, Plant Sustainability, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
Aeration consumes about 60% of the total energy of a WWTP and therefore makes up for a
major part of its carbon footprint. Introducing advanced process control can help plants to reduce
their carbon footprint and at the same time improve effluent quality through making available
unused capacity for denitrification, if the ammonia concentration is below a certain set-point.
Measuring and control concepts are a cost-saving alternative to the extension of reactor volume.
However, they also involve the risk of violation of the effluent limits due to measuring errors,
unsuitable control concepts or inadequate implementation of the measuring and control system.
Dynamic simulation is a suitable tool to analyze the plant and to design tailored measuring and
During this work, extensive data collection, modeling and full-scale implementation of aeration
control algorithms were carried out at three conventional activated sludge plants with fixed predenitrification
and nitrification reactor zones. Full-scale energy savings in the range of 16-20 %
could be achieved together with an increase of total nitrogen removal of 40%.
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: <50K, 100K-500K, 500K-1M, Waste Water Treatment | Tags: Ammonia Control, Cost Savings, Energy Savings, Environmental Impact, Plant Sustainability, Reduced Aeration, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
Dallas Water Utilities (DWU)
Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) has identified multiple projects within their wastewater treatment
plants (WWTPs) to support the Green Dallas Initiative for energy conservation and
sustainability. In 2010, a new co-generation facility at the Southside Wastewater Treatment Plant
(SWWTP) will be brought on-line. This facility will utilize digester gas for electricity
production. As part of the Green Dallas Initiative, and to optimize the co-generation facility, the
feasibility of adding high strength wastes to the anaerobic digesters at SWWTP to increase the
digester gas production was evaluated.
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: 100K-500K, Stormwater, Waste Water Treatment, Water Treatment | Tags: Cost Savings, Electricity Production, Environmental Impact, Improved Plant Sustainability, Increased Digester Gas, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
Annacis Island Wastewater Treatment Plant
Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)
Annacis Island Wastewater Treatment Plant which is operated by Metro Vancouver, is leading
the way in working within a carbon based regulatory environment. British Columbia has
instituted carbon reduction legislation province wide, a leader in North America. As a result
public entities, such as Metro Vancouver, must be carbon neutral by 2012. In response the utility
is holistically investigating different approaches to achieve the required GHG reductions. One
approach now being actively pursued is the implementation of co-digestion at Annacis Island.
Having developed a the scope for a full co-digestion program at the plant, a pilot facility was
constructed to provide further process controls as well as a start at reducing emissions by codigesting
material at the plant. This project also provided Metro Vancouver a basis of handling
its own sludges from other wastewater treatment plants on an emergency or planned basis by
dual tasking the receiving facility to receive both sludges and co-digestion substrates.
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: 500K-1M, Waste Water Treatment | Tags: Cost Savings, Energy Production, Environmental Impact, Improved Plant Performance, Improved Plant Sustainability, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD)
Significant opportunities exist to increase renewable energy production using existing municipal
anaerobic digesters. Many wastes can be added to co-digest more carbon and produce more
methane. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare potential co-digestates,
determine synergistic, antagonistic and neutral co-digestion outcomes, quantify performance of
co-digestion for selected wastes and estimate economic benefits. Over 80 wastes were identified
from 54 facilities within 160 km of an existing municipal digester. The most promising wastes
(26 wastes) were characterized by biochemical methane potential (BMP) and other testing. A
simple economic comparison identified the greatest benefits for seven co-digestates.
Performance was investigated using bench-scale digesters receiving synthetic primary sludge
with and without co-digestates. Methane production rates in co-digesters were as much as 180%
greater than anticipated from the additional chemical oxygen demand (COD). Therefore,
significant synergism was observed. The VS destruction efficiencies were 49 and 33% higher
when co-digestates were present. Co-digestion is one method to increase renewable energy
production via anaerobic digestion.
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: >1M, Sanitary Sewer, Stormwater, Waste Water Treatment | Tags: Cost Savings, Environmental Impact, Improved Plant Performance, Improved Plant Sustainability, Increased Biogas Production, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources
The F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWHWRC), owned and operated by the Gwinnett
County, GA, Department of Water Resources (DWR), is an advanced wastewater treatment plant
which currently discharges into the Chattahoochee River and Lake Lanier. The FWHWRC
maximum month design flow is 60 million gallons per day (mgd) and currently about 30 mgd of
wastewater is received.
In light of rising energy costs and declining revenues reflective of the continuing, severe
economic downturn that began in 2007, the Gwinnett County DWR began an initiative to make
the best possible use of resources under DWR control, including renewable energy resources.
DWR retained CH2M HILL to identify and evaluate opportunities to improve resource
utilization and reduce energy costs at the FWHWRC. The results of the evaluations, procedures
for capturing stimulus funding, and technologies employed are discussed in this paper.
The energy types considered for the FWHWRC were biogas derived from anaerobic digestion,
solar, wind, and low-head hydropower. A screening analysis concluded that biogas combustion
to produce power and heat was the optimum alternative.
Next, a Business Case Evaluation (BCE) was conducted to determine if the construction and
operation of a gas-to-energy facility would be economically feasible. The BCE considered
several different scenarios for generating power from biogas, including biogas production with
and without addition of fats, oil & grease (FOG) and high strength waste (HSW) to the existing,
anaerobic sludge digesters.
The BCE concluded that a gas to energy facility based on an internal combustion engine (ICE)
was feasible. The proposed system, in addition to continuously generating electrical energy for
use at the FWHWRC, would be capable of producing sufficient heat to keep the anaerobic
digesters operating in the mesophilic temperature range of 95-100 degrees Fahrenheit (F). By
capturing the heat produced by the ICE, in addition to generating power, the system would have
a total energy-recovery efficiency approaching 80%.
The BCE recommended a gas to energy facility of approximately 2 megawatts (MW) in capacity
at the FWHWRC. The biogas requirement at a nominal 600 British Thermal Units (BTU) per
cubic foot (ft3) for an ICE of this capacity is approximately 520 standard cubic feet per minute
(scfm). However, as the FWHWRC is at only about 50% of its total design capacity, the
currently available biogas is considerably less than 520 scfm, and a purchased natural gas fuel
blend would be required to obtain full power generation and heat recovery benefits. To minimize purchase of natural gas, maximize biogas, and as a result improve the return on
investment in the cogeneration system, DWR next investigated addition of FOG and high
strength waste (HSW) to the anaerobic digesters to supplement the solids feed. The project was
made even more attractive by DWR’s successful pursuit of funding under the American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), as administered by the Georgia Environmental
Facility Administration (GEFA), and from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
A schematic design of the system with specifications was prepared for competitive selection of a
design-build contractor. The design-build contract was awarded in October 2009. The contract
value is $5.19 million and includes the installation of a 2.1 MW engine generator along with
digester gas cleaning and drying equipment. The gas-to-energy facility is expected to reach
substantial completion by the end of 2010 with contractual completion in May 2011.
A second RFP for the design and construction of a FOG and HSW receiving facility was
advertised in February 2010. The design-build contract was awarded in June 2010 at a contract
value of $3.16 million. Its completion and startup will closely follow the completion and startup
of gas cogeneration facilities.
Once operational, the FOG/HSW handling and cogeneration facilities will have the potential to
save over one million dollars annually in power costs and generate more revenue in FOG and
HSW disposal fees. When operating at its rated capacity, the resulting power production will
offset the amount of fossil fuel used to generate over 17,000 MW-hours of electrical power
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: 500K-1M, Stormwater, Waste Water Treatment, Water Treatment | Tags: Cost Savings, Energy Savings, Environmental Impact, Heat Production, Improved Energy Production, Improved Plant Sustainability, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
This paper outlines how energy management planning can accomplish dual goals of
energy self-sufficiency and optimum treatment processing, and how this provides robust
performance and acceptable payback on investment, leading to net zero energy
wastewater operations. The energy content of wastewater surpasses the energy required
by treatment, reportedly be a factor of up to 10 times. Nevertheless, conventional
activated sludge plants with advanced treatment consume typically 1,800 kWh/MG of
electricity, but facilities vary from 1,000 to 3,000 kWh/MG. Energy efficiency studies
conclude that the potential for energy use reductions through efficient pumps and aerators
are on the order of 30 to 50 percent, which is a range of about 400 to 700 kWh/MG. For
plants with anaerobic digestion, a rule-of-thumb for electrical production from biogasfueled
generators is 500 kWh/MG. Supplementation of anaerobic digesters with high
strength organic waste and fats, oils and grease is possible where utilities have excess
digester capacity. The experience with supplementation is that facilities have increased
biogas by a factor of two or three times pre-existing conditions, and are able to have a
corresponding increases in electricity production, where generators have been adequately
sized. When thermal heat can be returned for plant processes, overall plant efficiencies
rise even higher. Energy planning studies have also shown that innovative technologies
that build upon anaerobic processes reduce energy usage from typical values, and,
further, energy plans have demonstrated some unexpected results, such as the economic
and environmental justification of anaerobic digestion combined with thermal processing,
such as dryers and incinerators. While local conditions, particularly energy pricing and
government subsidies, likely shape the specific planning objectives and outcomes of any
individual plant, the variety of energy efficiency and production technologies that are
becoming proven can result in a similar endpoint, and specifically net zero energy
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: Stormwater, Waste Water Treatment, Water Treatment | Tags: Cost Savings, Energy Efficiency, Energy Savings, Environmental Impact, Plant Sustainability, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
The development of the Carbon Heat Energy Analysis Plant Evaluation Tool (CHEApet) by
the Water Environment Research Federation (WERF) was in response to the identified need
for a predictive modeling tool that unifies prior WERF research information regarding
quantifying and managing energy consumption. CHEApet was created under OWSO4R07C
of WERF’s Optimization Challenge to model performance and energy consumption of waste
water treatment plants (WWTPs). Energy consumption, along with treatment process
emissions, contributes to a facility’s carbon footprint. CHEApet can be used to create a
baseline scenario, or inventory, of a utility’s carbon footprint for informational purposes as
well as to compare with hypothetical treatment plants. This kind of comparison allows the
user to identify facilities in the utility for energy optimization and the potential for biogas
recovery which can save in costs and improve the footprint of the facility.
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: Stormwater, Waste Water Treatment, Water Treatment | Tags: Biological Phosphorus Removal, Chemical Phosphorus Removal, Cost Savings, Energy Optimization, Energy Savings, Environmental Impact, Heat Drying, High Efficiency Air Diffusers, Improved Biogas Production, Phosphorus recovery, Plant Sustainability, Process Modeling, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »
Strass Wastewater Treatment Plant
Innsbruck, Austria (Europe)
With increasing operating costs and concerns regarding climate change, most wastewater
treatment facilities are under pressure to reduce the net energy used to treat a gallon of
wastewater. The ultimate goal would be to reduce the net energy use to the point that the
wastewater plant actually “breaks even” on energy use, by a combination of more efficient
operations and production of energy via digestion and power generation. This paper presents a
“roadmap” showing how a wastewater treatment plant can pursue the goal of energy self-sufficiency
via a combination of alternative philosophical approaches and innovations .
Posted: May 20th, 2011 | Filed under: 100K-500K, 50k-100k, Stormwater, Waste Water Treatment | Tags: Cost Savings, Energy Optimization, Energy Savings, Environmental Impact, Improved Plant Reliability, Plant Sustainability, Reduced Carbon Footprint, Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions | No Comments »